Studies of ocean island basalts have identified a Prevalent Mantle (PREMA) component as a fundamental feature of mantle geochemical arrays; however, its origin and distribution are highly controversial, including its potential link to plumes sourced in low-shear-wave velocity provinces (LLSVPs) above the core-mantle boundary. In this study, we interrogate the compositional systematics of？~？3500 Cenozoic oceanic and continental sodic basalts to provide insights into the origin and distribution of PREMA. We find that low-degree basaltic melts with high Nb concentrations located away from deep-mantle plumes have PREMA-like Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic signatures, implying that PREMA is highly fusible and not exclusively associated with LLSVPs. Geochemical modelling and mantle convection simulations indicate that PREMA could have been generated soon after Earth accretion, experiencing only minimal melting or enrichment, and then scattered throughout the upper mantle, rather than being the result of mixing between depleted and enriched mantle components.
Article link: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-023-43845-4